Migrants play a significant role in increasing economic links between their home and adoptive countries. They contribute to increasing trade and increasing capital flows between the respective countries in the form of remittances and direct investment. In the context of Romania, only a trickle of this capital flow is in the form of direct investment, although diaspora direct investment (DDI) may represent a more desirable form for the state than remittances. The purpose of this study is two-fold. On one hand, it aims at investigating why Romanians from the diaspora invest in their homeland and, on the other hand, it seeks to understand why the number of diaspora investors is still so low. The study is based on the qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles featuring interviews with diaspora entrepreneurs. We found that decisions to return and invest in Romania were motivated by both push (homesickness, lack of economic opportunities in the adoptive countries, the need for a new challenge and patriotism) and pull factors (business opportunities and beautiful, attractive places in Romania). The main constraining factors were found to be excessive bureaucracy, people’s mentality, shortage of labor and other adverse economic conditions. While the findings of this study confirm some of the results posted by previous studies, they also propose some motivations for DDI that were not captured by other works on the subject.
Diaspora, Diaspora Direct Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Romania
- Aharoni, Y. (1966). The foreign investment decision process. Boston, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration, Division of Research.
- Altzinger, W. (1998). Austria’s foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe: Supply based or market driven? Working Paper, No.57.
- Anghel, I. (2020). Investitiile straine directe s-au situate in 2019 la cel mai inalt nivel de la criza incoace. Ziarul Financiar, 14 February. Retrieved from: https://www.zf.ro/eveniment/investitiile-straine-directe-s-au-situat-2019-cel-inalt-nivel-criza-incoace-investitiile-straine-directe-isd-reprezinta-participatii-capital-au-2019-aproape-nivelul-celor-2008-5-2-mld-euro-18847564
- Bahar, D. (2020). Diasporas and economic development: A review of the evidence and policy. CESifo Working Paper, No. 8106. Center for Economic Studies and ifo Institute (CESifo), Munich, Germany.
- Bandelj, N. (2002). Embedded economies: Social relations as determinants of foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe. Social Forces, 81(2), 411-444.
- Beal, D.J., Goyen, M., & Phillips, P. (2005). Why do we invest ethically? The Journal of Investing, 14(3), 67-77.
- Buch, C.M., Kleinert, J. & Toubal, F. (2006). Where enterprises lead, people follow? Links between migration and FDI in Germany. European Economic Review, 50(8), 2017-2016.
- Ceesay, E.K., Sanneh, T., Jawo, A., Jarju, M. & Jassey, O. (2019). Impact of personal remittances received on economic growth in the Gambia. Asian Basic and Applied Research Journal, 1(2), 45-58.
- Cohen, R. (2008). Global diasporas: An introduction. London, UK: Routledge.
- Constant, A.F. & Zimmermann, K.F. (2016). Diaspora economics: New perspectives. International Journal of Manpower, 37(7), 1110-1135.
- Constantin, D.L., Goschin, Z. & Danciu, A.R. (2011). The Romanian economy from transition to crisis. Retrospects and prospects. World Journal of Social Sciences, 1(3), 155-171.
- Constantin, D.L., Goschin, Z., Dragusin, M., & Padina, V. (2010). Ethnic entrepreneurship as a gate to a more entrepreneurial Romania: The case of Turkish entrepreneurs. Regional Studies Association Annual International Conference, Pécs, Hungary, May 24-26.
- Debass, T. & Ardovino, M. (2009). Diaspora direct investment (DDI): The untapped resource for development. Washington, DC: United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
- Délano, A. & Gamlen, A. (2014). Comparing and theorizing state-diaspora relations. Political Geography, 41, 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2014.05.005.
- Dicken, P. (2011). Global shift: Mapping the changing contours of the world economy (6th Edition). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
- Egresi, I. (2018). “Tourists go home!” – Tourism overcrowding and “tourismophobia” in European cities (Can tourists and residents still co-habitate in the the city?). In, L. Pedata, E. Perfido, & L. Rossi (Eds.), (Co) Habitation Tactics: Imagining Future Spaces in Architecture, City and Landscape (pp. 701-714). Proceedings of TAW 2018 International Scientific Conference, POLIS University, Tirana, Albania, 20-23 September.
- Egresi, I. (2010). Foreign direct investment in Romania: A geographical perspective. Saarbrücken, Germany: Verlag Dr. Müller.
- Egresi, I (2007). Foreign direct investment in a recent entrant to the EU: The case of the automotive industry in Romania. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 48(6), 748-764.
- Egresi, I. & Kara, F. (2015a). The geography of Turkish investments in Romania. Revista Română de Geografie Politică, 17(2), 53-64.
- Egresi, I. & Kara, F. (2015b). Foreign policy influences on outward investment: The case of Turkey. Journal of Balkan and Near Easter Studies, 17(2), 181-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19448953.2014.993259
- Elo, M. & Jokela, P. (2015). Re-conceptualizing the role of the family context in emerging economy: Family business and entrepreneurship. Paper presented at the EURAM Conference: Family Business in Emerging, Developing and Transition Economies, Warsaw, Poland, 17-20 June.
- Elo, M. & Riddle, L. (2016). Understanding diaspora investment. In, M. Elo & L. Riddle (Eds.), Diaspora Business (pp. 13-28). Interdisciplinary Press.
- Fernhaber, J.A., McDougall-Covin, P., & Shepherd, D.A. (2009). International entrepreneurship: Leveraging internal and external knowledge sources. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(4), 297-320.
- Flisi, S. & Murat, M. (2011). The hub continent. Immigrant networks and migrant diasporas and FDI. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40, 796-805.
- Gao, T. (2005). Foreign direct investment in China: How big are the roles of culture and geography? Pacific Economic Review, 10(2): 153-166.
- Gao, T. (2003). Ethnic Chinese networks and international investment: Evidence from inward FDI in China. Journal of Asian Economics, 14, 611-629.
- Gillespie, K., D.J., Riddle, L., Sayre, E., & Sturges, D. (1999). Diaspora interest in homeland investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), 623-634.
- Graham, B.A.T. (2014). Diaspora-owned firms and social responsibility. Review of International Political Economy, 21(2), 432-466.
- Graham, B.A.T. (2012). Capital and chaos: Fragile states, political risk and foreign direct investment. PhD Dissertation, University of California San Diego.
- Hergnyan, M. & Makaryan, A. (2006). The role of the diaspora in generating foreign direct investment in Armenia. www.ev.am
- Honig, B., Drori, I., & Carmichael, B. (2010). Transnational and immigrant entrepreneurship in a globalized world. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
- Hymer, S. (1976). The international operations of national firms: A study of direct foreign investment. Cambridge, MA and London, UK: The MIT Press.
- Javorcik, B., Özdenç, Ç., Spătăreanu, M. & Neagu, C. (2011). Migrant networks and foreign direct investment. Journal of Development Economics, 94(2), 231-241.
- Jermakowicz, W. (1995). Privatization and foreign investment in Eastern Europe. In I. Zloch Christy (Ed.), Privatization and foreign investment in Eastern Europe (pp. 65-94). Westport, CT & London, UK: Praeger Publishing.
- Johansen, H., Snickars, F., & Steinbuka, I. (2000). Nordic investments in the former Soviet Baltic frontier: A survey of firms and selected case studies. Geografiska Annaler, 82B(4): 207-219.
- Johanson, J., Vahlne, J.E. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm – a model of knowledge development and the increasing market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 23-32.
- Kenny, K. (2013). Diaspora. A very short introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Khanna, T. (2007). Billions of entrepreneurs: How China and India are reshaping their future and yours. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
- Kobayashi, A. (Ed.) (2019). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (2nd Edition). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
- Lacroix, T. (2019). Unravelling the conceptual link between transnationalism and diaspora. The example of hometown network. In R. Cohen & C. Fischer (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Diaspora Studies. London, UK and New York, NY: Routledge.
- Lin, X. & Tao, S. (2012). Transnational entrepreneurs: Characteristics, drivers and success factors. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 50-69.
- Lu, J. (2012). A social-network behavioral approach to overseas Chinese and overseas non-Chinese investments in China. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 103(4), 426-442.
- Mansoor, A. & Quillin, B. (Eds.) (2007). Migration and remittances: Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
- Marinov, M.A., Morita, K., & Marinova, S.T. (2003). Characteristics of Japanese foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe. In S.T. Marinova & M.A. Marinov (eds.), Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives (pp. 155-180). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
- Mavroudi, E. (2020). Feeling Greek, speak Greek? National identity and language negotiation amongst the Greek diaspora in Australia. Geoforum, 116, 130-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2020.08.003.
- Meyer, K. (1998). Direct investment in economies of transition. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
- Mihi-Ramirez, A., Sobierajc, J. & Garcia-Rodriguez, Y. (2019). Interaction of emigration and immigration with foreign direct investment, international trade and remittances. Economics Discussion Papers, No. 2019-63. Kiel Institute for the for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany.
- Minoian, V. & Freinkman, L. (2005). Diaspora’s contribution to Armenia’s economic development: What drives the first movers and how their efforts could be scaled up? Washington, DC: The World Bank.
- Murat, M. & Pistoresi, B. (2009). Emigrant and immigrant networks in FDI. Applied Economics Letters, 16(12), 1261-1625.
- Müller-Funk, L. (2020). Diaspora politics and political remittances. A conceptual reflection. In R. Cohen & C. Fischer (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Diaspora Studies. London, UK and New York, NY: Routledge.
- Nedelcu, M. (2020). Digital diasporas. In R. Cohen & C. Fischer (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Diaspora Studies. London, UK and New York, NY: Routledge.
- Neuhaus, M. (2005). Foreign direct investment: The growth engine in Central and Eastern Europe. EU Monitor, July 13.
- Newland, K. & Tanaka, H. (2010). Mobilizing diaspora entrepreneurship for development. In K. Newland (Ed.), Diasporas: New Patterns in Global Development Policy (pp. 25-29). Washington, DC: MPI.
- Nkongolo-Bakenda, J.M. & Chrysostome, E.V. (2013). Engaging diasporas as international entrepreneurs in developing countries: In search of determinants. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11, 30-64.
- Nkongolo-Bakenda, J.M., Anderson, R., Ho, J., & Garven, G. (2010). Structural and competitive determinants of globally-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises: An empirical analysis. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 55-86.
- Nielsen, T.M. & Riddle, L. (2010). Investing in peace: The motivational dynamics of diaspora investment in post-conflict economies. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(4), 435-448.
- Nielsen, T.M. & Riddle, L. (2007). Why diasporas invest in the Homeland: A conceptual model of motivation. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.987725
- Okpara, J.O. & Wynn, P. (2007). Determinants of small business growth constraints in a Sub-Saharan African economy. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 72(2), 24-35.
- Paas, T. & Scannell, N.J. (2001). The role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investments in transition economies: The case of Estonia. Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, 20(3), 81-110.
- Pickles, J. & Smith, A. (2005). Technologies of transition: Foreign investment and (re-) articulation of East Central Europe into the global economy. In D. Turnock (Ed.), Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Development in East Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union (pp. 21-38). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
- Rana, M.B. & Elo, M. (2017). Transnational diaspora and civil society actors driving MNE internationalization: The case of Grameenphone in Bangladesh. Journal of International Management, 23(1), 87-106.
- Riddle, L. & Brinkerhoff, J. (2011). Diaspora entrepreneurs as institutional change agents: The case of Thamel.com. International Business Review, 20(6), 670-685.
- Roman, M. & Strat, V.A. (2018). Romanian immigrants and the inflows of foreign direct investment towards Romania. Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 13(4), 1226-1241.
- Saxenian, A.L. (2005). From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in Comparative International Development, 40(2), 35-61.
- Siwale, J. & Hack-Polay, D. (2018). Conclusion: Reflecting on African diaspora direct investment. In D. Hack-Polay & J. Siwale (Eds.), African Diaspora Direct Investment; Establishing the Economic and Socio-Cultural Rationale. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Shin, H. (2019). Extra-territorial nation-building in flows and relations: North Korea in the global networks and an ethnic enclave. Political Geography, 74, 102048. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.102048
- Terrazzas, A. (2010). Diaspora investment in developing and emerging country capital market: Patterns and prospects. Diasporas: New Patterns in Global Development Policy. Washington, D.C,: Migration Policy Institute.
- Tong, S. (2005). Ethnic networks in FDI and the impact of institutional development. Review of Development Economics, 9(4), 563-580.
- Topzhiu, R. & Xhelili, F. (2016). The role of migrant workers remittances in fostering economic growth: The Kosovo experience. The Romanian Economic Journal, 19(61), 165-192.
- Vaaler, P.M. (2013). Diaspora concentration and the venture investment impact of remittances. Journal of International Management, 19, 26-46.
- Van de Laar, M. & Neubourg, C. (2006). Emotions and foreign direct investment: A theoretical and empirical exploration. Management International Review, 46(2), 207-233.
- Wei, Y. & Balasubramanyam, V.N. (2006). Diaspora and development. The World Economy, 29(11), 1599-1609.
- Yeung, H.W. (2005). Local politics and foreign ventures in China’s transitional economy: The political economy of Singaporean invests in China. Political Geography, 19, 809-840.
|Journal Section||Research Articles|
|Dates||Publication Date : March 30, 2021|
|APA||Bodocan, V , Egresi, I . (2021). Diaspora FDI: Why do Returning Migrants Invest in Their Home Countries and What are the Main Difficulties They Face? The Case of Romania . Turkish Journal of Diaspora Studies , 1 (1) , 20-48 .|
total views 1,202 , views today 3